Permanent residency is a visa status that allows the bearer of the PR card to legally reside in the host country without being a citizen of that country. Permanent residents are entitled to live, work, go to school and access health care in the host country. However, they are not typically entitled to vote or run for office.
Residency by investment is the process of obtaining a permanent residency card in another country by investing in the economy of that country. PR status is then conferred at an accelerated rate compared to traditional applications.
Many countries offer residency by investment programs in order to attract much-needed foreign direct investment. Countries can then use these funds to invest in their own economic or cultural projects.